Brief History of PRIMO

The International Symposium series, "Pollutant Responses in Marine Organisms" began in 1981 with a small group of National Science Foundation-funded investigators who were addressing questions related to "Chemical Effects and the Health of the Ocean" at a mechanistic level.
The first PRIMO Symposium was held in Plymouth, UK, in 1981 with the goal of stimulating international scientific interactions in this area. The success of the first PRIMO meeting led to a second in 1983 in Woods Hole, USA, and then to biennial meetings worldwide. Although the word "marine" was used to produce the memorable acronym, the meeting has never distinguished between, and always has included, marine and freshwater organisms.
The PRIMO conference series has always been committed to disseminating scientific and research progress through the publication of special issues in two international scientific journals, namely – Aquatic Toxicology and Marine Environmental Research. Furthermore, and maybe most important, the PRIMO conference series is committed to encouraging the participation and recruitment of young researchers into the field through e.g. provision of travel grants.

PRIMO meetings have been held in the following locations worldwide

PRIMO1: 1981, Plymouth, UK
PRIMO2: 1983, Woods Hole, USA
PRIMO3: 1985, Plymouth, UK
PRIMO4: 1987, Woods Hole, USA
PRIMO5: 1989, Plymouth, UK
PRIMO6: 1991, Woods Hole, USA
PRIMO7: 1993, Gothenburg, Sweden
PRIMO8: 1995, Monterey, USA
PRIMO9: 1997, Bergen, Norway
PRIMO10: 1999, Williamsburg, USA
PRIMO11: 2001, Plymouth, UK
PRIMO12: 2003, Tampa, USA
PRIMO13: 2005, Alessandria, Italy
PRIMO14: 2007, Florianopolis, Brazil
PRIMO15: 2009, Bordeaux, France
PRIMO16: 2011, Long Beach, USA
PRIMO17: 2013, Faro, Portugal
PRIMO18: 2015, Trondheim, Norway
PRIMO19: 2017, Matsuyama, Japan
PRIMO20: 2019, Charleston, USA